Intel Active Management Technology

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Intel Active Management Technology

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Ubuntu reports that my laptop's processor is an Intel Core 2 CPU T7200.
That supports iAMT2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_2_microprocessors#.22Merom.22.2C_.22Merom-2M.22_.28standard-voltage.2C_65_nm.29

AM2 has been in the news. And I have read that AMT can be turned off in
the BIOS. Whose date is 2006-11-22.
But I couldn't find such a setting therein, just:
        * Config;
        * Date/Time;
        * Security;
        * Startup;
        * Restart; and
        * HDD diagnostic program.
What is the procedure for securing BIOS in this regard?
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Bryan,

Without knowing the exact model of your laptop it's a bit hard to say.

Have you explored all the options under Config?

Have you tried googling for an answer?

On Mon, May 15, 2017 at 4:20 PM, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux <
[hidden email]> wrote:

> Ubuntu reports that my laptop's processor is an Intel Core 2 CPU T7200.
> That supports iAMT2.
> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_2_microproc
> essors#.22Merom.22.2C_.22Merom-2M.22_.28standard-voltage.2C_65_nm.29
>
> AM2 has been in the news. And I have read that AMT can be turned off in
> the BIOS. Whose date is 2006-11-22.
> But I couldn't find such a setting therein, just:
>         * Config;
>         * Date/Time;
>         * Security;
>         * Startup;
>         * Restart; and
>         * HDD diagnostic program.
> What is the procedure for securing BIOS in this regard?
> --
> www.netspeed.com.au/bryan/
>
> --
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> [hidden email]
> https://lists.samba.org/mailman/listinfo/linux
>



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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Matt Garrett has released a simple tool any Linux user can use to find out
whether the Intel AMT vulnerability will be an issue for them.

https://github.com/mjg59/mei-amt-check.git

Here's what happened when I ran it on my laptop:

Intel AMT is present
AMT is unprovisioned

So I'm good.

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 15/05/17 16:56, Mike Carden via linux wrote:

> Matt Garrett has released a simple tool any Linux user can use to find out
> whether the Intel AMT vulnerability will be an issue for them.
>
> https://github.com/mjg59/mei-amt-check.git
>
> Here's what happened when I ran it on my laptop:
>
> Intel AMT is present
> AMT is unprovisioned
>
> So I'm good.
>

Woohoo! I managed to get a machine to be vulnerable!

Also, Brian, if you run lspci and grep for MEI:
$ lspci | grep -i MEI

if nothing comes up, you are safe. If it shows your Communications
Controller has the MEI flag, then you may have it present, but it
may not be provisioned (yet).

cheers,

Bob Edwards.

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Thanks, Bob:

> Also, Brian, if you run lspci and grep for MEI:
> $ lspci | grep -i MEI
>
> if nothing comes up, you are safe.

I ran this--without response.
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Excuse me, Mike:

> https://github.com/mjg59/mei-amt-check.git

Neither Ubuntu Software nor Synaptic Package Manager gave a usable
response to my search for "mei-amt-check". Similarly "sudo
./mei-amt-check" gave the error "command not found".

The README.md file on the above Web page, states "Requires that the
mei_me driver (part of the upstream kernel) be loaded.". But I was
unable to find "mei_me" with Ubuntu Software, Synaptic Package Manager,
or apropos!

The above github page advised "Run make". Apropos said that I didn't
have "run". And unfortunately I am unfamiliar with using make with a
makefile. Please advise.
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 15 May 2017 at 20:15, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux
<[hidden email]> wrote:
> Excuse me, Mike:
>
>> https://github.com/mjg59/mei-amt-check.git
>
>
> Neither Ubuntu Software nor Synaptic Package Manager gave a usable response
> to my search for "mei-amt-check". Similarly "sudo ./mei-amt-check" gave the
> error "command not found".

Well, no, you have to build that first.

>
> The README.md file on the above Web page, states "Requires that the mei_me
> driver (part of the upstream kernel) be loaded.". But I was unable to find
> "mei_me" with Ubuntu Software, Synaptic Package Manager, or apropos!

See if it's in the result for lsmod.  Or else `zgrep -i mei_me /proc/config.gz`

>
> The above github page advised "Run make". Apropos said that I didn't have
> "run". And unfortunately I am unfamiliar with using make with a makefile.
> Please advise.

Just run "make" (sans quotes)

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>
>
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Ivan:

>> Neither Ubuntu Software nor Synaptic Package Manager gave a usable response
>> to my search for "mei-amt-check". Similarly "sudo ./mei-amt-check" gave the
>> error "command not found".
> Well, no, you have to build that first.

Though my father quality-checked buildings--yet I remain unfamiliar with
building Github stuff!

>> The README.md file on the above Web page, states "Requires that the mei_me
>> driver (part of the upstream kernel) be loaded.". But I was unable to find
>> "mei_me" with Ubuntu Software, Synaptic Package Manager, or apropos!
> See if it's in the result for lsmod.

I couldn't see it in that listing.

> Or else `zgrep -i mei_me /proc/config.gz`

Such a file was reported absent!

>> The above github page advised "Run make". Apropos said that I didn't have
>> "run". And unfortunately I am unfamiliar with using make with a makefile.
>> Please advise.
> Just run "make" (sans quotes)

So I did as follows.

{

make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
                         
                         PROGS := mei-amt-check
                         
                         all: $(PROGS)
                         
                         clean:
                         rm -fr $(PROGS)"
}

Yielding the following error.

{
$(...) is not supported. In fish, please use '(CROSS_COMPILE)'.
fish: make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
}

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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>>> The above github page advised "Run make". Apropos said that I didn't
>>> have
>>> "run". And unfortunately I am unfamiliar with using make with a
>>> makefile.
>>> Please advise.
>> Just run "make" (sans quotes)
>
> So I did as follows.
>
> {
>
> make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
>                                                 PROGS := mei-amt-check
>                                                 all: $(PROGS)
>                                                 clean:
>                         rm -fr $(PROGS)"
> }
>
> Yielding the following error.
>
> {
> $(...) is not supported. In fish, please use '(CROSS_COMPILE)'.
> fish: make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
> }


Next (to appease fish) I removed the dollar signs from the text, thus.

{
make "CC := (CROSS_COMPILE)gcc

                         PROGS := mei-amt-check

                         all: (PROGS)

                         clean:
                         rm -fr (PROGS)"
}

Which yielded the error following quoted.

"make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop."

So I saved that text (sans dollars as above) to a file named
Makefile.txt, on my Desktop. Then I pointed a terminal window running
fish at the Desktop, and I entered "make Makefile.txt". Which yielded
the following quoted error!

"make: Nothing to be done for 'Makefile.txt'."
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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I tried again in bash shell.

{
make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
 >
 > PROGS := mei-amt-check
 >
 > all: $(PROGS)
 >
 > clean:
 > rm -fr $(PROGS)"
}

Resulting in the following quoted error report.
"CROSS_COMPILE: command not found
PROGS: command not found
PROGS: command not found
make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop."

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Thanks, Neill:


> Without knowing the exact model of your laptop it's a bit hard to say.

Labelling on the case says that it's a Lenovo T60 IBM ThinkPad.

> Have you explored all the options under Config?

Therein--I couldn't recognise anything relevant.

> Have you tried googling for an answer?

Bob's test has yielded no problem. And he assured me that therefore I'm
safe. Basically answering my initial problem.

Since then, I have exhausted myself, realising that I am an exception to
Mike's claim below! Rather, I have not found this tool to be simple, and
have been unable to use it.

"Matt Garrett has released a simple tool any Linux user can use to find
out whether the Intel AMT vulnerability will be an issue for them."
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 15/05/17 22:51, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:

> I tried again in bash shell.
>
> {
> make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
>>
>> PROGS := mei-amt-check
>>
>> all: $(PROGS)
>>
>> clean:
>> rm -fr $(PROGS)"
> }
>
> Resulting in the following quoted error report.
> "CROSS_COMPILE: command not found
> PROGS: command not found
> PROGS: command not found
> make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop."

Hi Bryan,

I have no idea where you got lost, but it is time to stop digging.
Then again, maybe I misunderstood where/how you got stuck.

The build process described in the (earlier provided) github link
assumes that you understand the need to first fetch the repository.

Run
        git clone https://github.com/mjg59/mei-amt-check.git
Or, if you do not have 'git' installed, click the green "clone or download"
button (top right), then unzip the delivered file.

Proceed with:
        cd mei-amt-check
        make
        sudo ./mei-amt-check

This is a standard way of dealing with projects hosted on a git repository.

Did you do this and failed?

cheers

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 15/05/17 22:51, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:

> I tried again in bash shell.
>
> {
> make "CC := $(CROSS_COMPILE)gcc
>>
>> PROGS := mei-amt-check
>>
>> all: $(PROGS)
>>
>> clean:
>> rm -fr $(PROGS)"
> }
>
> Resulting in the following quoted error report.
> "CROSS_COMPILE: command not found
> PROGS: command not found
> PROGS: command not found
> make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop."


'make' means (shorthand) "build package from source"
which can mean - build a package from source, and install... (make, make
install) or, build a debian package from source (make a debian package,
install a debian package). The former requires the packages covered by
"build-essential" (meta package for package building software), the
latter, "build-essential and checkinstall".

checkinstall builds a (very) basic debian package, and allows
installing/deinstalling using the Debian package management system
(dpkg). Note that Ubuntu uses the Debian package management system.

First run the command "sudo apt-get install build-essential"

Then read these:-
Refs:http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Software-Building-HOWTO-3.html
https://wiki.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-make
https://askubuntu.com/questions/161104/how-do-i-install-make
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CheckInstall
http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/using-checkinstall-build-packages-source

To find out if a package/file is included in $Something:-
install "apt-file":-
sudo apt-get -y install apt-file

Then update the apt-file datebase:-
sudo apt-file update (updates database with full list of files and paths
used by installable packages in your repositories)

You can then use apt-file to search for files that are part of a package...
e.g. sudo apt-file search mei|grep -i amt|grep
'kernel\|image\|source\|header'
which yields... nothing.
But.. apt-file search mei|grep ".ko$"
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/media/rc/keymaps/rc-gadmei-rm008z.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei-me.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/mei_phy.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/pn544/pn544_mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/media/rc/keymaps/rc-gadmei-rm008z.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei-me.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/mei_phy.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/pn544/pn544_mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/media/rc/keymaps/rc-gadmei-rm008z.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei-me.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/mei_phy.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/pn544/pn544_mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/media/rc/keymaps/rc-gadmei-rm008z.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei-me.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/misc/mei/mei.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/mei_phy.ko
linux-image-4.9.0-2-rt-amd64-unsigned:
/lib/modules/4.9.0-2-rt-amd64/kernel/drivers/nfc/pn544/pn544_mei.ko

Conclusion:- in my case, the kernel modules exists, I'd just need to
load it (if I hadn't already killed Intel Management long ago).


tl;dr?
If the instructions say:- "make, config, make install", install your
"build essential" (gcc, kernel source, kernel headers),
"make" the software, configure the software, then use "checkinstall" to
build a basic debian package, then install the debian package (see the
quoted references or this mailing list for hints).

make, config, make install is for "any" Linux distribution.
make, config, checkinstall is the variation to be used for any
distribution based on Debian.


Kind regards

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    Q: Why should I start my reply below the quoted text?

    A: Because it messes up the order in which people normally read text.
    Q: Why is top-posting such a bad thing?

    A: The lost context.
    Q: What makes top-posted replies harder to read than bottom-posted?

    A: Yes.
    Q: Should I trim down the quoted part of an email to which I'm reply

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Thanks, Eyal:


> I have no idea where you got lost, but it is time to stop digging.

I had taken literally what I had perceived to be detailed and precise
instruction!

> The build process described in the (earlier provided) github link
> assumes that you understand the need to first fetch the repository.

All assumptions are risks! Whereas I am just an ordinary Ubuntu user.

> Or, if you do not have 'git' installed, click the green "clone or
> download"
> button (top right), then unzip the delivered file.

I have a tendency to over-concentrate. And so I had read the blue file
names at the top left:
     * LICENSE;
     * Makefile;
     * README.md; and
     * mei-amt-check.c.
Thereby not noticing that button!

I have now downloaded that bundle to my Downloads directory, and opened
the files as you recommended.

> Proceed with:
>     cd mei-amt-check

The directory that was created is "mei-amt-check-master". So I changed
to that directory.

>     make

These were listed.

gcc     mei-amt-check.c   -o mei-amt-check

>     sudo ./mei-amt-check

Interestingly, this was the report. Agreeing with Bob's test result.

"Unable to find a Management Engine interface - run sudo modprobe mei_me
and retry.
If you receive the same error, this system does not have AMT"

So I entered what the above report suggested, reporting nothing. And as
recommended, I re-entered the following
{
sudo ./mei-amt-check
}

Which resulted in exactly the same error above. Therefore as it advised,
my system doesn't have AMT.

> This is a standard way of dealing with projects hosted on a git
> repository.

I'd like to bookmark a Web page for novices, going through such
rituals--knowledge of which has been wrongly assumed!

> Did you do this and failed?

Your careful explanation worked fine for me.

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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Thanks, Scott:

> 'make' means (shorthand) "build package from source"
> which can mean - build a package from source, and install... (make, make
> install) or, build a debian package from source (make a debian package,
> install a debian package).

I had not appreciated "make" as representing a more long-winded procedure!

> The former requires the packages covered by
> "build-essential" (meta package for package building software), the
> latter, "build-essential and checkinstall".

Synaptic Package Manager reported that "build-essential" was installed.
I have since used it to also install "checkinstall".

> Note that Ubuntu uses the Debian package management system.

I had previously used "Ubuntu Software" to install packages.

> First run the command "sudo apt-get install build-essential"

It reported that build-essential was already the newest version.
Recommending auto-removing packages that were no longer required. As
advised, I used the following command. Which reportedly freed 594 MB of
disk space.

{
sudo apt autoremove
}

> Then read these

Wilco.

> To find out if a package/file is included in $Something:-
> install "apt-file":-
> sudo apt-get -y install apt-file
>
> Then update the apt-file datebase:-
> sudo apt-file update (updates database with full list of files and paths
> used by installable packages in your repositories)
>
> You can then use apt-file to search for files that are part of a package...

I don't understand "apt", needing to absorb an explanatory introduction
on its use.

> If the instructions say:- "make, config, make install", install your
> "build essential" (gcc, kernel source, kernel headers),
> "make" the software, configure the software, then use "checkinstall" to
> build a basic debian package, then install the debian package (see the
> quoted references or this mailing list for hints).

I had avoided software requiring this! So I have some reading to do.

> make, config, make install is for "any" Linux distribution.
> make, config, checkinstall is the variation to be used for any
> distribution based on Debian.

I would appreciate a talk on such lore!

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 16/05/17 00:45, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:
...
> All assumptions are risks! Whereas I am just an ordinary Ubuntu user.
>

Indeed. And yet we all make assumptions, subconsciously or otherwise,
everyday.

People kindly posting to this list have to assume that readers either
have some knowledge of what to do, or can otherwise perform the
appropriate research, ask a friend, or ask the list!

In the last case, using appropriate "net etiquette", where possible...

cheers,

Bob Edwards.



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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

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On 16/05/17 01:30, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:
<snipped>
>
>> Note that Ubuntu uses the Debian package management system.
>
> I had previously used "Ubuntu Software" to install packages.

That is a GUI for the Debian package management system (aptitude, dpkg,
.deb packages etc).

<snipped>
>>
>> You can then use apt-file to search for files that are part of a
>> package...

Online man pages:-
https://manpages.debian.org/ (very fast)
http://manpages.ubuntu.com/ (no so quick)

>
> I don't understand "apt", needing to absorb an explanatory introduction
> on its use.

There is no package called "apt", rather there are a number of packages
with "apt" in their name. They all have man pages that document their
use - those man packages are installed onto your system at the same time.

See for yourself:-
apt-cache --names-only search ^apt | more

>
>> If the instructions say:- "make, config, make install", install your
>> "build essential" (gcc, kernel source, kernel headers),
>> "make" the software, configure the software, then use "checkinstall" to
>> build a basic debian package, then install the debian package (see the
>> quoted references or this mailing list for hints).
>
> I had avoided software requiring this!

It's rare that you'd need to do so - but occasionally you may want to
install something from source code because it/or that version, is not
available in your distributions repository as a pre-compiled debian package.

So I have some reading to do.

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CompilingEasyHowTo
(you can ignore the step "sudo apt-get install cvs subversion git-core
mercurial")

>
>> make, config, make install is for "any" Linux distribution.
>> make, config, checkinstall is the variation to be used for any
>> distribution based on Debian.
>
> I would appreciate a talk on such lore!

If you need to hear and watch:-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRQ4QBegur8

If you prefer written instruction:-
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CheckInstall
https://www.ostechnix.com/build-packages-source-using-checkinstall/


Kind regards


--
    A: Because we read from top to bottom, left to right.
    Q: Why should I start my reply below the quoted text?

    A: Because it messes up the order in which people normally read text.
    Q: Why is top-posting such a bad thing?

    A: The lost context.
    Q: What makes top-posted replies harder to read than bottom-posted?

    A: Yes.
    Q: Should I trim down the quoted part of an email to which I'm reply

http://www.idallen.com/topposting.html

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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

Samba - linux mailing list
    Scott,

I use Synaptic Package Manager (for Debian).

George.

At Wednesday, 17-05-2017 on 12:33 Scott Ferguson via linux wrote:


On 16/05/17 01:30, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:

>
>> Note that Ubuntu uses the Debian package management system.
>
> I had previously used "Ubuntu Software" to install packages.

That is a GUI for the Debian package management system (aptitude,
dpkg,
.deb packages etc).


>>
>> You can then use apt-file to search for files that are part of a
>> package...

Online man pages:-
https://manpages.debian.org/ (very fast)
http://manpages.ubuntu.com/ (no so quick)

>
> I don't understand "apt", needing to absorb an explanatory
introduction
> on its use.

There is no package called "apt", rather there are a number of
packages
with "apt" in their name. They all have man pages that document their
use - those man packages are installed onto your system at the same
time.

See for yourself:-
apt-cache --names-only search ^apt | more

>
>> If the instructions say:- "make, config, make install", install
your
>> "build essential" (gcc, kernel source, kernel headers),
>> "make" the software, configure the software, then use
"checkinstall" to
>> build a basic debian package, then install the debian package (see
the
>> quoted references or this mailing list for hints).
>
> I had avoided software requiring this!

It's rare that you'd need to do so - but occasionally you may want to
install something from source code because it/or that version, is not
available in your distributions repository as a pre-compiled debian
package.

So I have some reading to do.

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CompilingEasyHowTo
(you can ignore the step "sudo apt-get install cvs subversion git-core
mercurial")

>
>> make, config, make install is for "any" Linux distribution.
>> make, config, checkinstall is the variation to be used for any
>> distribution based on Debian.
>
> I would appreciate a talk on such lore!

If you need to hear and watch:-
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRQ4QBegur8

If you prefer written instruction:-
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CheckInstall
https://www.ostechnix.com/build-packages-source-using-checkinstall/


Kind regards


--
    A: Because we read from top to bottom, left to right.
    Q: Why should I start my reply below the quoted text?

    A: Because it messes up the order in which people normally
read text.
    Q: Why is top-posting such a bad thing?

    A: The lost context.
    Q: What makes top-posted replies harder to read than
bottom-posted?

    A: Yes.
    Q: Should I trim down the quoted part of an email to which I'm
reply

http://www.idallen.com/topposting.html

--
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Re: Intel Active Management Technology

Samba - linux mailing list


On 17/05/17 12:44, George at Clug via linux wrote:
>     Scott,
>
> I use Synaptic Package Manager (for Debian).

That is also a GUI for the Debian package management system (aptitude,
dpkg, .deb packages etc). It uses the GTK library to provide a GUI for
the APT libraries.

There are many:-
https://raphaelhertzog.com/2011/06/20/apt-get-aptitude-%E2%80%A6-pick-the-right-debian-package-manager-for-you/

Apper is now the default for KDE in some distros -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apper

Technically, aptitude is also a Debian package manager GUI.

At a low level they all work with dpkg, and they all do as advertised
(just work). For many of us the CLI tool, apt-get, is all we need.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Package_manager provides an overview of
different package management systems.

Whatever works for you is the best tool IMO.


>
> George.
>
> At Wednesday, 17-05-2017 on 12:33 Scott Ferguson via linux wrote:
>
>
> On 16/05/17 01:30, Bryan Kilgallin (iiNet) via linux wrote:
>
>>
>>> Note that Ubuntu uses the Debian package management system.
>>
>> I had previously used "Ubuntu Software" to install packages.
>
> That is a GUI for the Debian package management system (aptitude,
> dpkg,
> .deb packages etc).
>
>
<snipped>

Kind regards

--
    A: Because we read from top to bottom, left to right.
    Q: Why should I start my reply below the quoted text?

    A: Because it messes up the order in which people normally read text.
    Q: Why is top-posting such a bad thing?

    A: The lost context.
    Q: What makes top-posted replies harder to read than bottom-posted?

    A: Yes.
    Q: Should I trim down the quoted part of an email to which I'm reply

http://www.idallen.com/topposting.html

--
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